A Transitory on Intracellular Receptors


A Transitory on Intracellular Receptors

Intracellular receptors are located inside the cell instead of on its cell wall. Basic hormones that use intracellular receptors include thyroid and steroid hormones. Examples include the category of nuclear receptors located within the nucleus and cytoplasm and therefore the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor located on the endoplasmic reticulum. The ligands that bind to the receptors are usually intracellular second messengers like inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and extracellular lipophilic hormones like steroid hormones. Some intracrine peptide hormones even have intracellular receptors.

Intracellular receptors come under the category of ligand dependent transcription factors that include receptors for both steroid and non-steroid hormones. Within the non-ligand state, these receptors present within the cytoplasm and/or within the nucleus. Once they bind to the hormone, these receptors homo-dimerize or hetero-dimerizes, and regulate, positively or negatively, organic phenomenon by binding to specific sequences within the chromatin, termed HRE (Hormone Responsive Element).

Steroid receptors are receptors for glucocorticoids, progestins, estrogens, androgens and mineralocorticoids. The non-steroidal compounds are retinoids, thyroid hormones and vitamin D, and an outsized set of exogenous compounds, like dioxin.

These receptors are classified into three major domains: a variable amino-terminal domain liable for antigenic properties of the receptors; a comparatively well-conserved carboxyterminal domain which represents the hormone binding domain, a well-conserved, cystein-rich central domain containing two Zn++-stabilized fingers, which mediates binding to specific sites on nuclear DNA to activate or inhibit transcription of the nearby gene. It is therefore regular aspect that the steroids are identified in many parts of recent biology as agents that control organic phenomenon. The other part of steroid action is said to their lipophilic character and their effect on cell surface activities.

Full article: https://www.imedpub.com/articles/a-transitory-on-intracellular-receptors.php?aid=38983

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