Hormones Mechanism of Action along with Intracellular Receptors


Hormones Mechanism of Action along with Intracellular Receptors

Receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones are present inside the target cells, in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of the cell. Their performance as ligand-dependent transcription factors. It is to mention that the hormone-receptor complex binds to promoter regions of responsive genes and revive or sometimes stop transcription from those genes.

Thus, the mechanism of action of steroid hormones is to modulate organic phenomenon in target cells. By selectively affecting transcription from a set of genes, the concentration of these respective proteins are altered, which distinctly can change the phenotype of the cell.

Structure of intracellular receptors

Steroid and hormone receptors are projection of an outsized group ("superfamily") of transcription factors. In few cases, multiple sorts of a given receptor are expressed in cells, adding to the complexity of the response. All of these receptors are composed of one polypeptide chain that has, within the simplest analysis, three distinct domains: The amino-terminus: In general cases, this region is involved in activating or stimulating transcription by interacting with other components of the transcriptional machinery. The sequence is very variable among different receptors.

DNA binding domain: Amino acids during this region are liable for binding of the receptor to specific sequences of DNA. The carboxy-terminus or ligand-binding domain: It is often the region that binds hormone. In inclusion to those three core domains, two other key regions of the receptor protein are a nuclear localization sequence, which targets the protein to nucleus, and a dimerization domain, which is responsible for latching two receptors together during a form capable of binding DNA.

Full article: https://www.imedpub.com/articles/hormones-mechanism-of-action-along-with-intracellular-receptors.php?aid=38985

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