MXenes

Image MXenes are a class of two-dimensional inorganic compounds. These materials consist of few-atoms-thick layers of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. First described in 2011, MXenes combine metallic conductivity of transition metal carbides and hydrophilic nature because of their hydroxyl or oxygen terminated surfaces. STRUCTURE Scanning electron microscope image of the MXene produced by HF-etching of Ti3AlC2. As-synthesized MXenes prepared via HF etching have an accordion-lik... Read More

Regulation of and by the Plant Cell Wall

Image The plant cell wall is a dynamic network surrounding the plant cell. It consists of a cross-linked polysaccharide matrix, including as major components cellulose microfibrils, hemicellulose and pectin, as well as the minor components of structural proteins and lignin. The plant cell wall represents the most abundant terrestrial carbon source, and plays a key role in many important plant physiological processes. The wall characteristics vary in different cell types and are highly-regulated during cell biological processes. The dynamic and flexible properties of the cell wall facilitate cell ... Read More

Tandem mass spectrometry

Image Tandem mass spectrometry, also known as MS/MS or MS2, is a technique in instrumental analysis where two or more mass analyzers are coupled together using an additional reaction step to increase their abilities to analyse chemical samples. A common use of tandem-MS is the analysis of biomolecules, such as proteins and peptides. The molecules of a given sample are ionized and the first spectrometer separates these ions by their mass-to-charge ratio (often given as ... Read More

Passive infrared sensor - Principle and construction

Image Passive infrared sensor / PIR sensor is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most often used in PIR-based motion detectors. PIR sensors are commonly used in security alarms and automatic lighting applications.PIR sensors detect general movement, but do not give information on who or what moved. For that purpose, an active IR sensor is required.PIR sensors are commonly called simply "PIR", or sometimes "PID", for "passive infrared detector". The term&n... Read More

Chemical sensor and its types

Image A chemical sensor is a device which responds to a particular analyte molecule in a selective way in the presence of other molecules through a chemical reaction and can be used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the analyte in the complex sample. After recognition of a molecular entity, the chemical sensor transduces the signal through a physicochemical process into an electrical signal which can be further amplified and processed.While before chapter deals with different types of acoustic transducers, this tutorial focuses on the chemical sensing layer that affects the mo... Read More

Chromosomal Instability, Aneuploidy, and Cancer

Image Most human neoplasms are aneuploid and this state of abnormal chromosome number is the result of elevated rates of whole-chromosome mis-segregation, a process known as Chromosomal Instability (CIN). A number of cellular mechanisms that lead to CIN have recently been uncovered and it is now evident that CIN can result from the perturbation of a variety of pathways that normally ensure the faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Furthermore, some recent evidence is now linking chromosome mis-segregation to increased rates of DNA damage, as well as chromosome pulverization and endo... Read More

Deconvolution and screening

Image Deconvolution and screening The synthesized molecules of a combinatorial library are 'cleaved' from the solid support and mixed into solution. In such solution, millions of different compounds may be found. When this synthetic method was developed, it first seemed impossible to identify the molecules, and to find molecules with useful properties. Strategies of purification, identification, and screening were developed, however, to solve the problem. All these strategies are based on synthesis and testing of partial libraries. The... Read More

 Langmuir–Blodgett film and its applications

Image  Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) film is a nanostructured system formed when Langmuir films or Langmuir monolayers (LM) are transferred from the liquid-gas interface to solid supports during the vertical passage of the support through the monolayers. LB films can contain one or more monolayers of an organic material, deposited from the surface of a liquid onto a solid by immersing (or emersing) the solid substrate into (or from) the liquid. A monolayer is adsorbed homogeneously with each immersion or emersion step, thus films with very accurate thickness can be formed. This... Read More

Thermal oxidizer

Image Thermal oxidizer A thermal oxidizer (also known as thermal oxidiser, or thermal incinerator) is a process unit for air pollution control in many chemical plants that decomposes hazardous gases at a high temperature and releases them into the atmosphere. Thermal oxidizers are typically used to destroy ... Read More

CALORIMETRIC SENSOR

Image Calorimetric sensors are based on measurement of the heat produced by the molecular recognition reaction and the amount of heat produced is correlated to the reactant concentration. The principle of the calorimetric sensors is the determination of the presence or concentration of chemical species by the measurement of the enthalpy change produced by any chemical reaction or physisorption process that releases or absorbs heat. We talk about exothermic reactions if heat is generated and endothermic reactions if it is absorbed Calorimetric sensors have been described for enzyme ... Read More

POTENTIOMETRIC SENSOR

Image A potentiometric sensor is a type of chemical sensor that may be used to determine the analytical concentration of some components of the analyte gas or solution. These sensors measure the electrical potential of an electrode when no current is present. PRINCIPLE The signal is measured as the potential difference (voltage) between the working electrode and the reference electrode. The working electrode's potential must depend on the concentration of the analyte in the gas or solution phase. The r... Read More

Corrosion fatigue

Image Corrosion fatigue is fatigue in a corrosive environment. It is the mechanical degradation of a material under the joint action of corrosion and cyclic loading. Nearly all engineering structures experience some form of alternating stress, and are exposed to harmful environments during their service life. The environment plays a significant role in the fatigue of high-strength structural materials like steel, aluminum alloys and titanium alloys. Materials with high specific strength are being developed to meet the requirements of advancing t... Read More

NMR spectroscopy

Image NMR spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei. The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is produced by excitation of the nuclei sample with ... Read More

Pathophysiology of Rare Hemolytic Anemias

Image Hereditary hemolytic anemia is a heterogeneous group of diseases, many of which are rare or very rare. Roughly, these diseases can be subdivided into defects affecting the red cell’s major component (hemoglobinopathies), membrane and cytoskeleton (membranopathies), metabolism (enzymopathies), or production (hyporegenerative anemia). Intensive research from the recent past has identified numerous mutations in causative genes and has initiated the discovery of other new genes. This has enhanced our knowledge and led to a better understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases.... Read More

5 Great Herb Blogs for Beginners

Image 1. Harmonic Arts Botanical Dispensary This article wouldn’t be complete without Canadian representation in the field. I am Canadian after all. Harmonic Arts is located on my own home sweet home of Vancouver Island, BC, Canada. Founded and run by herbalist Yarrow Willard, son of well-known herbalist and teacher Terry Willard of Wild Rose College, Harmonic Arts not only offers high-quality bulk herbs and formulated products, but great educational articles, videos, presentations, and teachings. Yarrow, Angela, and Terry Willard were in fact presenters at our local Vancouver Isl... Read More

3 Great Herb Blogs for Beginners

Image 1. Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine I love love love Juliet Blankespoor’s sweet and wacky sense of humor, and in fact, it is what captured my attention on this blog in the first place. This is a blog with personality. It is full of great articles about specific herbs, recipes, gardening and growing, and of course her online herbalist courses. Juliet’s blog and courses are complimented by beautiful photos and videos which make them thoroughly enjoyable. I understand that this is another passion and skill she has developed, which makes this blog all the more dear to my... Read More

Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Image Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which features neurodevelopmental deficit, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disability. Research suggests the human brain is precisely shaped through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is orchestrated further upstream by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetics of FASD are becoming intertwined and inseparable. Now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, gen... Read More

Models and Estimation of Genetic Effects

Image Ronald Fisher needed to develop elaborate models of genetic effects in order to set the foundations of Quantitative Genetics in his 1918 paper “The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance”. Since then, many significant implementations have been made to model genetic effects. However, at the verge of one century after Fisher’s kick-off, models of genetic effects keep on being discussed and implemented. Indeed, the relatively recent advent of QTL analyses challenged the state of the art of this field by providing researchers the opportunity ... Read More

Electromagnetic induction

Image Electromagnetic induction In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge (an electron in this instance) if it travels once around the loop. For a time-varying magnetic flux linking a loop, the electric potential scalar field is not defined due to a circulating electric vector field, but an emf nevertheless does work that can be measured as a virtual electric potential around the loop In the case o... Read More

An Update on the Pathology

Image Gouty arthritis is an inflammatory disease initially triggered by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals into the joint space, developing into an inflammatory cascade resulting in the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil recruitment into the joint. It is associated with debilitating clinical symptoms, functional impairments, and a substantial impact on quality-of-life. Currently... Read More

Heritable Response to Stress

Image As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to environmental stress. Since stress avoidance is not an option, plants evolved as organisms that very efficiently acclimate and adapt to stress. Although the mechanism of stress response may be genetically predefined, organisms are capable to modify their responses with various epigenetic changes. Plants are especially flexible in this respect since they do not have a predetermined germ line and thus life experiences in the form of epigenetic memory can be more efficiently passed to the progeny. Indeed, the plasticity of plant phenotyp... Read More

News of Chemical Informatics

Image News of Chemical Informatics   Chemical Informatics is Insight medical publisher  journal and also one of the most emerging fields in the present scenario. It is a multidisciplinary field which covers the research containing molecular design tools for finding the best fitting compounds which address to particular targets. Chemical Informatics is a vast field that aims to disseminate information regarding the design, structures, creation, di... Read More

News from the Psychology, Neurobiology and Genetic Fields on Social and Economic Behavioral Studies

Image The 20th century began with the re-discovery of Mendel’s laws of heredity; the 21st century began with the Human Genome Project’s working draft of the human genome sequence. We are rapidly approaching a postgenomic era in which we will know the entire genome sequence and, most importantly, all the DNA variations in the genome sequence. These DNA polymorphisms are the source of hereditary influence and will revolutionize genetic research on individual differences (Robert Plomin). Psychometrics and behavioral genetic have already contributed a substantial num... Read More

Chemical Informatics-Editor’s Invitation

Image Chemical Informatics-Editor’s Invitation Chemical Informatics is Insight medical publisher  journal and also one of the most emerging fields in the present scenario. It is a multidisciplinary field which covers the research containing molecular design tools for finding the best fitting compounds which address to particular targets. Chemical Informatics is a vast field that aims to disseminate information regarding the design, structures, creation, d... Read More

Chemical Informatics-for better Future

Image Chemical Informatics-for better Future Chemical Informatics is Insight medical publisher  journal and also one of the most emerging fields in the present scenario. It is a multidisciplinary field which covers the research containing molecular design tools for finding the best fitting compounds which address to particular targets. Chemical Informatics is a vast field that aims to disseminate information regarding the design, structures, creation, dissemina... Read More

Advancement in Chemical Informatics

Image Advancement in Chemical Informatics Chemical Informatics is Insight medical publisher  journal and also one of the most emerging fields in the present scenario. It is a multidisciplinary field which covers the research containing molecular design tools for finding the best fitting compounds which address to particular targets. A ... Read More